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|This form (under construction) has been developed with the help of Mr. Pema Koivogui, association ACTORS FOR HABITAT – APOHA.|
ELEMENTS OF CONTEXT
Guinea is also called Guinea-Conakry, the name of its capital to differentiate from Guinea-Bissau and Equatorial Guinea. The official language is French.
COUNTRY BLESSED BY THE GODS
According to Guinea, Guinea-Conakry is a country blessed by Allah. It is nicknamed the “water tower of West Africa” for its water system. Its mineral resources are enormous and include rare metals such as cobalt and uranium, in addition to the gold and diamond …
From the 8th century, and Baga Nalou inhabit the region, joined by Jalonkés. During the ninth to the eleventh century, the kingdom will Mandigue vassal of the Empire of Ghana. This empire will endure until the thirteenth century in West Africa. At this time, the Ghana Empire declined and the empire of Mali who conquer these territories, settling there until the fifteenth century. The arrival of the Fulani and Mandigues the sixteenth century will bring Islam in Guinea, in the nineteenth century, is almost completely Islamized. At the end of the nineteenth century (1891), it is the beginning of colonization by France, colonization, which lasted until 1958. It is then very popular Sekou Toure, who became the first President of the “People’s Revolutionary Republic of Guinea”; officials of the Republic were then picked up the phone saying: “Hello! Ready for revolution!”. It was also an opportunity to review the school system and codify the first alphabet Guinea. Thousands of Guineans will however escape the scheme very dictatorial. After his death in 1984, will succeed many political regimes, some via a takeover by the military (coups), others via the ballot box. In 2009, a massacre took place against protesters who oppose the government in power. Many observers of human rights believe that much remains to be done in Guinea-Conakry …
There are about 30 ethnic groups speaking different languages in the territory. Statistics are old and unreliable. Among the best known groups include the Fulani, Malinke and Soussos, divided into four major geographic regions of the country. The complexity of membership due to the fact that there are many combinations (mixing) between ethnic groups. These groups may take the form of assimilation, matching and sub-groups. Guinea, practice what is called “Multilingualism strategic”: French is the language for the state apparatus, but other languages are used for services to the public, the courts, the media , …
– Level of schooling
Only 38% of Guinean children are in school, that proportion drops to 18% for girls in rural areas, despite significant investments in the state. The French language became the national language after Sekou Toure allowed to use textbooks. But the classes are overcrowded and the teaching profession is devalued.
– Level of poverty
Nearly half of the Guinean population lives below the poverty line. One of the characteristics of poverty is very high concentration of income (high Gini). Since 2003, poverty has worsened significantly, according to the World Bank and the Ministry of Planning, this being due to the sharp economic downturn in the country since that date.
Poverty is greater in rural and urban areas, but it is also increasing in cities. poverty is distributed unevenly according to geography: the Upper and Middle Guinea Guinea are the poorest regions of the country. There is a poverty mapping in Guinea Conakry.
The country has in recent years (2012) significant economic growth due to its mining and agricultural sectors. The World Bank and the IMF estimate that Guinea used satisfactorily to reduce poverty (including health and education of children).
– Access to socio-economical infrastructure
Many relatively recent investments have improved household access to safe drinking water. Rapid urbanization, inadequate equipment and management problems have unfortunately contributed since 2005 to reduce access.
The Guinean population is low energy consuming. Charcoal is a major fuel for families. Petroleum products are imported and intended primarily for mining, transportation, public works and incidental to agriculture. The country is naturally endowed with a considerable hydroelectric potential remains untapped.
Sources of this introduction:
RECENT URBAN HISTORY
In 1984, the death of Sékou Touré, a first effort management and urban planning after independence was achieved in 1987 in the city of Conakry, with a “urban development plan”. World Bank, France and the European Community take part in this project. Efforts have been made on urban infrastructure (roads and drainage) as well as the development of land in the city. The phenomenon of urban growth is then managed by the authorities: unification of the urban network – decongestion densely populated areas – improving the connection housing / employment. Rules are in place regarding land ownership and planning equipment and are made to provide new land for construction. But the state is not rich enough to propose that the “social housing”.
The urban growth is a phenomenon observed mainly in the city of Conakry and in the mining towns. Secondary cities are only slightly affected by this growth, habitat stayed rural type, with the exception of administrative buildings with several floors.
The urban environment is characterized by haphazard development enough space, a lack of infrastructure, housing shortages (especially in Conakry), a deficiency of sewerage and drinking water, a shortage of electricity.
The absence of legal and regulatory framework creates a strong tenure insecurity, specific mechanisms for financing housing, subdivisions summary and poor quality of construction. Populations living in urban living conditions deteriorated or unhealthy, with a virtual absence of land servicing and public lighting. This fosters disease and malnutrition!
The squatter is an important part of urban space; connection to drinking water has degraded the garbage collection is inadequate as means of transportation.
To go further: read the book The Guinea by Muriel Devey Malu Malu, ed. Karthala, 2009.
HISTORY OF CITIES – HERITAGE
Habitat in Guinea remains a serious concern. There is no housing policy can enable people, especially the poor, have access to housing. Towns and villages of the country are still characterized by anarchy in the land planification and the construction of housing. There is a lack of infrastructure and basic social services, a drastic degradation of environment and of life for the majority of citizens. A housing policy at the national level would put the problems of the sector and provide an overall framework of reference and responses habitat accepted by all stakeholders.
– Habitat Features
A lack of basic services, including access to the parcel, drinking water, adequate sanitation, electricity, paving streets, …
The poor quality of construction materials.
The uncertainty related to the location of buildings (built on floodplains, contaminated or prone to landslides) and land tenure housing.
Overcrowding: high density of occupation of plots, houses and rooms for sleeping and even to work.
– Poverty and access to decent housing
Audits conducted since 2001 reveal urban approximately 80% of the Guinean population lives in areas unstructured (informal settlements), and therefore has no access to urban services for their living environment. For these households slum dwellers in general, the main building material is mud. There is also a higher rate of promiscuity in the big cities there are up to six people per room in Conakry and in large cities, while the national average is 2.7 persons.
Sources of this part :
Habitat For Actors (APoHa)
Ministère de l’Economie, des Finances et du Plan de Guinée “Document de Stratégie de Réduction de la Pauvreté DSRP2 2007-2010”. Télécharger le document
URBAN VERSUS RURAL HABITAT
Actors Association Habitat For distinguished no less than 4 habitat types and 3 types of urban habitat areas. They believe that this typology in relation to the type of habitat – infrastructure and equipment (urban) show the breadth and variety of habitat due to insecurity:
The former regular habitat : it occupies the inner cities in general and is characterized by high densities. These structured areas during the colonial period are regular and registered, but often under-equipped. They have the advantage of having plotted routes that allow the development of networks of roads, drainage, water, sanitation and electricity.
New habitat : a large stock of houses more or less good quality develops in the peripheral areas and industrial cities. These areas have not been planning or land were often fragmented at the discretion of the will of “customary”. Consequently, the routes that are irregular prevent deserted by a system of roads and various networks and urban services.
The residual cohousing consists of parcels bounded and recorded which are built villas and buildings of medium or high standard developed by public or private actors.
The economic cohousing : includes cities socioprofessional severely degraded. This type of habitat is found in all cities.
Habitat problems are acute in urban areas as well due to high concentrations of people and their activities, in rural areas where people have very limited financial resources. This is why we must also consider the rural habitat that can be categorized as follows:
The cohousing : it consists of small huts built of adobe with thatch roofs and weak bases. boxes are organized around a courtyard and serve collective housing, kitchens, attics, bathroom.
The dispersed settlement: it consists of homesteads often fenced by hedges or dry and includes grahndes round huts and gardens for the intensive polyculture.
The linear habitat along major roads, it has grown from small towns and villages that are centers of trade and other services (sale of agricultural products, for example).
In conclusion, the isolation of some villages and the migration pattern of young farmers to urban communities increases the uncertainty in those localities where financial resources are limited and residents are derived primarily from agricultural activities, livestock and fishing activities carried out in the traditional manner with simple means. A phenomenon no less important characteristic of the rural habitat degradation is advanced to the environment due to intensive deforestation and bush fires.
Source: Habitat For Actors (APoHa)
RIGHT TO HOUSING
At the Guinean Constitution, two articles relate more specifically the right to housing:
Art.12: The home is inviolable. There can not be prejudiced in the event of serious and imminent danger, to avert a common danger or to protect the lives of people. Any other offense, any search can be ordered by the judge or by the authority of the Act means in the form prescribed by it.
Art. 13: The right to property is guaranteed. No one may be expropriated except in the interest of all legally recognized, and subject to a just and prior indemnity.
Among the legal instruments in Guinea include the Land Code Domanial (CFD), the Town Planning Code (CU), the Scheme of National Planning (SNAT) and Masterplans of Urban Planning and Development for some cities. Conakry city has its own Urban Development Plan (PDUC). The various codes are available on the following website: Website on legislation.
The news guinean site http://www.aujourdhui-en-guinee.com gives a lot of information on the status of housing rights in Guinea. Several articles show how the mining towns of Guinea are prone to violence against people, violence up to terrorism.
In 2012, the National Policy for the Habitat launched its “Vision 2021 Habitat” for the country. This medium-term strategic vision reads: “The establishment of a framework for safe and healthy life by promoting habitat accessible and meet people’s needs, in a context of balanced regional development of effective economic development, environmentally sustainable and socially equitable.” Actors of civil society expect concrete results of this strategic vision.
The NGO Habitat For Actor (APoHa) denounced cases of expulsion of families, particularly in connection with large infrastructure road. Information sheet HIC website
SOME INTERESTING PRACTICES
Social and economic aspects
In 2002, a survey is conducted (QUIBB), to establish that, in the capital Conakry, while 34.5% were found in 52.7% of owners tenants.
The relationship between landlords and tenants are difficult and are accentuated if one is young, single, or even another ethnic group as the dealer of the housing. Young says: “I have been many times victim of my single status. We can seek, negotiate later when the owner realizes that you’re single it tells you honestly he does not want a single. Yet it is not everyone who wants to get married before having a local Source : article d’Hadja Mariama Diallo – Site Internet : aujourd’hui-en-guinée.
QUALITY OF HOUSING
INFORMAL HOUSING / SLUM / HOMELESS
ROLE OF PUBLIC AUTHORITIES
The Guinean government decided in 2012 to embark on a program to produce affordable housing, especially to reduce the housing crisis in the city of Conakry. This is the national real estate development (SONAPI) is responsible for ensuring this project are among the priorities of the Guinean government. Source: http://www.guineeweb.org
Cultural aspects – Religious – Symbolic
The high humidity of the country suggests that the development of hydro-electric energy would be a possibility in Guinea.
Bibliography & Sitography
MAJOR PROBLEMS BY CIVIL SOCIETY
CLAIMS MAJOR CIVIL SOCIETY
CIVIL SOCIETY ACTORS
ACTEURS POUR L’HABITAT – APoHa = To contact them.
Publish What You Pay Guinea – PWYP: This is a national coalition body pressure and claim against the mining companies. It defends the rights of workers and residents in connection with the mining companies. Here is one of their advocacy in 2012: Constats et Recommandations.