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History of cities – Heritage
Historically, Brazilian cities were built in a disorganized way, without any planning or infrastructure. The increase in urban population has created suburbs. The current urban problems are intrinsically linked to poor planning and inefficiency of public policies.
In large cities, the imbalance between population growth and economic growth generates the proliferation of precarious housing in the form of improvised housing or obsolete without even basic urban services. The land cost is very high in city centers; that cost decreases towards the periphery, where extensive occupation replaces the intensive occupation. For cons, the financial cost of the implementation of urban services networks is very high in the periphery, forcing the state to invest in areas of the city already well served to improve and maintain existing services, which results in the strengthening of segregation and urban deprivation.The only alternative for the most disadvantaged groups is the illegal occupation of land, commonly called “illegal subdivisions, occupations and / or favelas.” These institutions are, most often, on grounds of risk: hillsides, floodplains such as mangroves.
Since the 1970s, a large number of interventions on urban centers was undertaken by public authorities and private investors. Most actions, seeking to promote the real estate revaluation, led to the expulsion of the poor. Source: CITEGO, Article “Maintaining social housing in the center of Brazilian cities”
From 80s, emerges the idea that these settlements must be improved “in place” rather than expelled or demolished. A new planning instrument appears, the result of the struggles of social movements to improve living conditions and land regularization: Zones of Special Social Interest (AEIS or ZEIS). ZEIS recognize the slum dwellers the opportunity to build, rebuild or improve within the law, but above all they claim the right to the city for its citizens-residents.
Right to Housing
The right to housing is guaranteed by the Brazilian Constitution since 1988
- Article 11: The home is inviolable asylum of the individual, one can not enter without the consent of the occupant, except in cases of flagrante delicto or disaster, or to provide relief or, during the day, a judicial decision.
- Article 22: The right to property is guaranteed; private property will exercise its social function, the law establishes the expropriation procedure for public utility or social function by a fair and prior compensation in cash, except as provided in this Constitution.
- Article 23: In case of imminent danger to the public, the competent authority may use the owner of the particular property provide further compensation, if there is damage.
- Article 24: As defined by the small right of rural property, where working families can not be seized to pay the debts arising from their productive activity, giving them the means to finance their development.
The Constitution of Brazil is one of the best examples in the recognition of the right to housing. Sections 82 and 83 of the Constitution deal of urban policy in Brazil and ensure that ownership of urban land must fulfill its social function.
With the coming to power of Lula in 2003, the Ministry of Cities was created. It was a historic claim of popular movements of struggle for the right to habitat. Today, CONAM has a large representation in the National Council of Cities as well as other social movements.
Video CONAM on the situation of evictions in Brazil: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1B1xVkGiF-0Brazil is a relatively developed countries, the average income but it has one of the highest levels of inequality in the world.
The organization of the Olympic Games in Rio in 2016 and that of the Soccer World Cup in other cities serve as an alibi to accelerate evictions. Thousands of Rio de Janeiro favela dwellers and other cities have been victims of evictions so that “the poor recede ever more affluent neighborhoods”, according to the terms of the lawyer Benedito Roberto Barbosa, activist Union Movements Rent São Paulo (UMM). The case is already a reason for concern to the UN. According to the UN official Raquel Rolnik, evictions are produced without minimally comply with national and international laws. In most cases, there is no dialogue with the communities and the compensation received by residents are much lower than what is necessary. Source: Article “Brazil expulsion in the favelas because of the World Cup and the Olympics”
- DPH, Article “Landless Workers’ Movement of Brazil: a secular history of the struggle for the land”
- RINOCEROS : article “Brazil: What limit for the land? »
For more information on this program:
- DPH, Article “The case of successful cooperation between France and Brazil in the relationship between habitat, economic and training activities
- DPH, Article “The participation of women in housing production”
Some interesting Practices
- STATUS OF THE CITY
The Act of 10 July 2001 (Federal Law 10.257). This law regulates the chapter on urban policy in the Constitution of 1988. This is a major advance in the law in Brazil. Indeed, municipalities now have a tool for regulating their urban policy, opening the space to great social advances. The instruments defined by the City Statute are of three types:
- Planning related set of tools to define forms of use and land cover.
- New management strategy that includes direct participation of citizens in decision making.
- Improving opportunities for the regularization of urban land.
For more information:
- CITEGO, Article “The law of 10 July 2001 in Brazil: the status of the city”
- DPH, Article “A major advance of legislation in Brazil: the power to act in the land market and the process of urbanization”
- Network Contact POLIS: Dicas@polis.org.br
- CITIZEN PARTICIPATION
In Brazil, there is a culture of citizen participation. In some cities, residents are invited to participate in the management of public issues. Here are some interesting tools:
- The Municipal Council of Urban Development. It allows to establish a space for dialogue between civil society and local government.
- Participatory budgeting :
Porto Alegre, with close to 1.4 million inhabitants, remains the oldest PB experience so far with over 25 uninterrupted years, although with some significant changes over that time. It remains an international reference and model. Porto Alegre coordinated the URBAL programme on municipal finance and Participatory Budgeting during the first half of the 2000s and in this context launched the first comparative study on PB to establish the base document mentioned in this working document.
Guarulhos, with over 1.2 million inhabitants, is the most populous city of São Paulo Metropolitan Area and faces some extreme situations. On the one hand, income is high and it hosts the largest airport in Latin America. At the same time it contains one of the highest proportions of favelas. A singular aspect of the Guarulhos PB experience that started in 1998 was its implementation of a massive civic education programme in partnership with Paulo Freire Institute, drawing on the approach of Brazil’s most famous civic educator to empower citizens.
Belo Horizonte (2,238,526 inhabitants) is the capital of the state of Minas Gerais. One of the oldest PBs, started in 1993, which is probably one of the most elaborate systems too, with different types of PB: (i) the participatory budget for housing, to meet the demands of homeless people; (ii) regional PB that takes place in a decentralised form in each of the nine administrative districts; and more recently (iii) digital PB that discusses investments at city level. Belo Horizonte also participated in the early 2000s research.
Canoas, located in Porto Alegre Metropolitan Area and with around 324 000 inhabitants, started its Participatory Budgeting in 2009, and in a short time consolidated an innovative process well anchored within the local administration. PB here goes hand in hand with a permanent process of open forums carried out weekly by the Mayor in different neighbourhoods of the city.
Várzea Paulista, with just over 100,000 inhabitants, is a good example of the PB processes that mushroomed in the State of São Paulo, starting in 2000, inspired by Porto Alegre, It has been able to maintain a good level of participation and innovation. PB is not carried out in the years when local elections take place so that citizens remain focused on political elections and at the same this avoids any criticism of PB being used by the Mayor in place as a campaigning tool.
To know more about the Participatory Budgeting concept or go to the Sources:
- Prof. Y. Cabannes, Contribution to the Participatory Budgeting to provision and management of basic services, IIED 2014 : http://pubs.iied.org/pdfs/10713IIED.pdf
- CITEGO, Article “The Municipal Council of Urban Development in Brazil”
- CITEGO, Article “A participatory budget experience in Recife, Brazil”
- CITEGO, Article “Involving residents in the management of cities”
- CITEGO, Article “In Porto Alegre, it is the population that traces the fortunes of the city via the” participatory budget “or co-development of the city budget”
- SOCIAL FUNCTION OF THE PROPERTY
Brazil, in 1988, enshrined in its Constitution (art. 23) the concept of social function of private property, emphasizing the importance of the common use in the face of individual property, with a view to more social justice. The POLIS Association advocates for this concept to be more effective on the ground.
- GLOBAL PLATEFORM RIGHT TO THE CITY
The Global Platform aims to contribute to the adoption of commitments, policies, projects and actions aimed at developing fair cities, democratic, sustainable and inclusive by United Nations bodies and the national and local governments. The construction of a Global Platform Right to the City at this time is extremely important for the strengthening of local and national urban social struggles and to the joint and international mobilization to especially address the definition processes of the Development Agenda / Post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals as well as the Third United Nations Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban Developmen (Habitat III) in 2016 and the World Social Forums and Social World Urban Forums, 2017. The Global Platform has the structural axes Human Rights in Cities; Democratic Governance and Participatory of Cities; Urbanization and Sustainable Use Planning and Social Inclusion; the Economic and Social Inclusion Development in the Cities. To know more : POLIS INSTITUTE (Nelson Saule)
SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS
A SIGNIFICANT DEFICIT OF QUALITY HOUSING (1)
The 2010 census reveals that Brazil has a total of 56,541,000 units for a population of 190 732 000 inhabitants, which corresponds to an average of 3.37 people per household. The quantitative deficit is relatively low, estimated at about 3,769,614 housing units. 83.2% of the urban housing deficit is concentrated in families receiving a monthly income of about US $ 260. The qualitative deficit seems to be on her important.
The housing deficit is qualitative: it follows from the high prices on the official market. The meager income that receive most Brazilian families and inadequate political power policies have consequences the increase of informal settlements (between 1995 and 1999, 4.4 million new homes were built of which only 700,000 are formal habitat). The growth of slums in distress develops in inappropriate places, due to the lack of affordable developable land. A significant proportion of people living in cities live indeed in the favelas (which may be the case 50% of the total population of the city).
Quality of Housing
Informal Housing / Slum / Homeless
ROLE OF PUBLIC AUTHORITIES
THE FIRST PUBLIC INITIATIVE GOES BACK TO 1964 (1)
The first Brazilian initiative to create a housing policy goals and defined objectives, permanent sources of own resources and funding mechanisms in 1964 with the enactment of the 4380 Act / 64. It was delivered to the military coup of that year, it was a response to the housing crisis in a country that is rapidly urbanizing. This law created the Financial Housing System (SFH), the National Housing Bank (BNH) and monetary adjustment in property contracts, social interest, among other measures. Since then, the federal government has continued to have the power to formulate national housing policy and coordination of public and private actions to stimulate the construction and financing of affordable housing. This policy was supported by funds from the SFH of Brazil’s savings and loan system (from SBPE by its Portuguese acronym) and the Guarantee Fund for Time of Service (FGTS).
THE CONSEQUENCES OF THE CRISIS (1)
The economic crisis in the late 70 generated strong imbalance in the SFH. This scenario leads to the extinction of BNH by Decree Law 2291/86, 1986. His duties were redistributed to the various governing bodies. In the 22 years of the NBH, build 4.3 million new units, 2.4 million of them FGTS 1.9 million SBPE resources for the middle class housing market is financed. If the period until 2000 is considered the SFH and continued to operate after the extinction of BNH in 1986 – were financed about 6.5 million homes.
Therefore, an intense process of urbanization casual and wild villas took place, where the vast majority of the population without any government support, has no other solution than self-built in the accession stages ownership in informal settlements as illegal and irregular subdivisions, favelas, etc. in urban areas, usually distant from poorly served with infrastructure and social facilities.
FROM 1995 RECOVERY FUNDING (1)
From 1995, a recovery in housing finance and sanitation on the basis FGTS and principles such as flexibility, decentralization, diversity, recognition of the real city, among others, has adopted new standards place, so compatible with the environment and national and international debate, somewhat generalized, then rejected conventional programs based on direct financing of large groups, and centralized management process.
Despite these efforts, the changes apparently were not as expected. Funding used to acquire property, which absorbed 42% of total housing resources (about 9.3 billion reais) is a low-impact program that does not create jobs or economic activity. Financing of the construction material, but it has the merit to support all low-income families who self-build (576,000 beneficiaries between 1995 and 2003), tends to stimulate informal housing production, exacerbating urban problems . In addition, the low value of funding and lack of technical advice, does not allow the beneficiary families to achieve adequate housing conditions.
Finally, it is worth noting the adoption in 2001 of the City Statute, which created the opportunity to assert the social function of property ….
SINCE 2004, A NEW DYNAMIC (1)
The national housing policy is made possible by the national system of housing, integrated into the three levels of government action. It has two subsystems:
- social interest (SNHIS) is for people with incomes up to five times the living wage market and is mainly for people with incomes five to ten minimum wages.
- The SNHIS Programs consider actions in the favelas, the relocation of families in hazardous areas, etc.
Since 2005, there has been a substantial increase in investment from all sources of funding and an extension of the grant, as well as increased use of public funds and a wide fundraising market, which generated what many call a real estate boom.
SINCE 2009, THE PROGRAM “Minha Casa, Minha Vida” (1)
My house, my life’s goal is to make housing accessible for persons whose gross household income does not exceed R $ 1,600.00 (actual 1600), organized in cooperatives, associations and other non-profit organizations focused on production and purchase of new homes, ensuring access to decent housing with the minimum standards of durability, safety and livability. The program works by providing loans to beneficiaries, organized associatively in Organizing Entities (EO), with funding from the federal budget provided the Social Development Fund (SDF). The government subsidy covers 95% of the value of the property. In its first phase, the program was R $ 7.7 billion investment in 2014: R $ 62.2 billion from the federal budget and R $ 9.5 billion FGTS.
The law that created the program (11,977 law) has also established the regularization of land ownership, an issue that is related because it allows the assessment of property in poor countries and allow funds to be allocated to the construction of the regularized land because of the high cost of urban land is a major constraint.
PUBLIC SOCIAL HOUSING
The National System for Social Housing and the National Housing Fund of social interest (Federal Law 11.124) were created following the adoption of a popular initiative law. The system establishes access to urban land and housing worthy to lower income population, while the Fund will aim to add up all the resources for actions for habitat. The resources of the Fund may be intended for the purchase, improvement and renovation of the house; acquisition of construction equipment, recovery of buildings in miserable settlements, urbanization, community facilities and land regularization, among others. For more information: Article “The creation of a national fund for social interest housing in Brazil” and the site of the UNMP
One of the main pillars of the protection and promotion of Brazilian social network called Bolsa Família Program (PBF) has achieved significant results in improving the living conditions of the poorest population. For more information on the social security system in Brazil and this program: Article “fundamental element in the consolidation of welfare Brazilian part 1” and Article “Part 2”
The favelas are usually on land at risk: hillsides (landslide risk), flood-prone areas such as mangroves. Despite environmental protection laws, these fragile regions are affected by urbanization particularly dense and devastating it is uncontrolled.
In the Amazon region, deforestation and farming system are the two main sources of emissions of CO2 and CH4 gas greenhouse effect. This is a huge problem for both national and global implications.
Bibliography & Sitography
Alianza Internacional de Habitantes, « Políticas alternativas de vivienda en América latina y el Caribe », 2013 coord Paul Maquet Makedonski, pp 46 à 51.
CADTM – Comité pour l’Annulation de la Dette du Tiers-Monde, les chiffres de la dette 2012
CADTM, “L’Audit citoyen de la dette au Brésil (Auditoria Cidadã da Dívida) : une source d’inspiration”, article de William Gaviria Ocampo, 2013.
CADTM – Comité pour l’Annulation de la Dette du Tiers Monde – Raúl Zibechi « Hacia un nuevo ciclo de luchas en América Latina », 2013.
- Relegation lower classes increasingly far periphery. This causes many other problems: trip length, difficulty of access to employment, collective infrastructurs (health, universities, cultural activtés …).
- In these balieues, urbanization takes place in a “wild”. There are no amenities.
- Important housing deficit (over 12 million if we take into account the resettlement needs we reach 20 million)
- In city centers, there may be an increase in empty buildings or under used, the degradation of the historical, the precariousness of collective housing, such Cortiços a concentration of informal activities, the relocation of economic activities.
According to The CONAM:
- Urban reform that is integrated in the practice of public policy and that is the fruit of dialogue between different spheres of government. Urban Reform must ensure social role of property as provided in the law called the City Statute.
- Housing development
- The regularization of the property or stopping evictions that violate the right of the inhabitants.
According NATIONAL FORUM FOR URBAN REFORM :
He believes that the Brazilian housing policy has focused on individual subsidies and credit for the purchase of private property or the construction of individual housing units also, without meeting the housing needs of the population with low incomes. In fact, to meet the housing needs of this population, we need a set of measures that articulates:
- the requisition of vacant public buildings and underutilized;
- the application of the concession of special use for housing purposes;
- the adoption of new real estate plans, such as cooperatives, which already exist in Uruguay;
- improved funding arrangements and the adoption of new modalities of housing services, such as subsidized rent;
- articulated with technical assistance resources to the promotion of housing through self-management or for the purchase of building materials, for example.
Furthermore, it is essential to do everything possible to implement all the instruments of the existing urban reform, such as the Statute of the City, the National System of Social Interest Housing (SNHIS), the National Fund of Social Interest Housing (FNHIS ) and the Federal Law 11.888 / 2008 Technical Assistance recently approved. For more information about the claims of FNRU on the site AIH.
Some civil society Actors
POLIS = Institut qui travaille avec d’autres acteurs sociaux afin de renforcer la société civile dans ses droits (démocratie participative et contrôle social des politiques publiques). Pour ce faire, POLIS renforce une citoyenneté culturelle, des modes de consommations et de production plus durables (gestion des déchets – agriculture urbaine), promeut le droit à la ville. L’association effectue des analyses et des évaluations qui aboutissent à des propositions concrètes soumises aux politiques et travaille à la construction de plateformes afin de promouvoir les droits sociaux des habitants. Website POLIS
MOVIMIENTO NACIONAL DE LUTA PELA MORADIA – MNLL (Mouvement National de Lutte pour le Logement). Ce Mouvement est né en 1991. Ses représentants insistent sur le fait que les militants de ce mouvement sont encore dans un processus d’apprentissage et de formation dans la lutte. Il est organisé dans 14 Etats du Brésil. Pour en savoir plus sur les : revendications et actions du MNLL et BLOG du mouvement
CONFEDERACÃO NACIONAL DAS ASSOCIACÕES DE MORADORES – CONAM = (Confédération Nationale des Associations d’Habitants). Cette confédération, créée en 1982, est un mouvement populaire communautaire dont le rôle est d’organiser les fédérations étatiques, les unions communales, les associations communautaires et les groupes de quartiers et de voisins. Elle a participé au processus de création du Fonds du logement populaire et elle soutient l’application du Statut de la ville. Pour plus d’information : Site du mouvement – Les contacter.
CENTRAL DE MOVIMIENTOS POPULARES – CMP (Centrale des Mouvements Populaires). Blogs du mouvement : http://cmprio.blogspot.com/ et http://cmp-sp.blogspot.com/. Cette fédération est le fruit d’un processus historique de résistance des mouvements sociaux populaires dans années 80. Elle a été crée lors du Congrès National des Mouvements Populaires en 1993. Vidéo sur la CMP et les défis des mouvements populaires : https://vimeo.com/13017013
UNIÃO NACIONAL POR MORADIA POPULAR – UNMP (Union Nationale pour le Logement Populaire). Ce mouvement a été créé en 1989 et s’est consolidé à partir du processus de récolte de signatures pour le premier projet de loi d’initiative populaire qui a crée le Système, le Fonds et le Conseil National pour l’Habitat populaire au Brésil. L’UNMP réunit différents mouvements populaires pour le droit à l’habitat dans 19 états brésiliens. Contact : Rua Conselheiro Furtado 692 – Sala 03, São Paulo – SP, Liberdade, 01511-000, Brasil, email@example.com – Site internet
OSSERVATORIO BELEM L’observatoire de Belem
DhESCA = PLATAFORMA BRASILEIRA DE DIREITOS HUMANOS ECONÔMICOS, SOCIAIS CULTURAIS E AMBIENTAIS. Cette palteforme est une articulation de 36 mouvements et organisations de la société civile qui développent des actions de promotion et de défense des droits humains économiques, sociaux, culturels et environnementaux visant le renforcement de la citoyenneté et la radicalisation de la démocratie. Blog de la plateforme
FORUM NACIONAL DE REFORMA URBANA – FNRU. Il s’agit d’un groupe d’organisations brésiliennes qui, depuis 1987, luttent pour de meilleures villes pour tous. Ces organisations sont très diverses : mouvements populaires, associations, ONGs et instituts de recherche. Ils mobilisent les associations et les citoyens pour lutter contre les injustices dans les villes. Ils mettent en avant trois principes : le droit à la ville – la gestion démocratique de la ville – la fonction sociale de la propriété et de la ville. Site Internet FNRU – Contact via le site.
OBSERVATORIO INTERNACIONAL DO DIREITO À CIDADE – OIDC (Observatoire International du Droit à la Ville). L’OIDC a pour mission de promouvoir l’observation et le recencement des pratiques sociales de mise en application ou de revendication du droit à la ville par des mouvements populaires, des organisations, des forums et réseaux sur des sujets tels que l’accès au logement, la régularisation des occupations urbaines, la gestion démocratique de la ville, la protection du droit culturel. Information sur l’OIDC met à disposition des initiatives, des expériences, des études et recherches sur les thèmes traitant du droit à la ville. Voir aussi le Site de POLIS.
MOVIMIENTO DOS TRABALHADORES RURAIS SEM TERRA – MST = Le Mouvement des travailleurs ruraux Sans Terre. Depuis sa création en 1983, le mouvement organise son action autour de trois objectifs principaux : la lutte pour la terre, la lutte pour la réforme agraire et la lutte pour une société plus juste et plus fraternelle. Actuellement reconnu comme l’un des plus importants mouvements sociaux des dernières années en Amérique latine, sa simple longévité et l’amplitude de son pouvoir de mobilisation peuvent être interprétées comme un signe de sa force et de sa capacité d’organisation populaire. Le MST compte aujourd’hui plus de 350 000 familles qui ont vu leur situation régularisée suite à des occupations de terres inexploitées, en construisant des campements qui se multiplient au bord des routes, dans de grandes fermes et surfaces inoccupées. Ce sont ces occupations, organisées par le MST, qui ont ainsi assuré aux paysans démunis ou déracinés l’accès à la terre, et marqué profondément l’image politique du Brésil contemporain. Aujourd’hui, les paysans sans-terres qui pourraient bénéficier d’une politique de réforme agraire sont estimés à quatre millions de familles. Parmi elles, 100 000 vivent dans des campements organisés par le MST. Source :Article « Mouvement des sans-terre du Brésil : une histoire séculaire de la lutte pour la terre » – Site internet du MST
HABITAT PARA A HUMANIDADE BRASIL – HPH Brasil. Il s’agit de la branche brésilienne de ONG mondiale Habitat for Humanity International qui promeut le logement comme droit humain fondamental et a pour objectif de s’opposer à toutes les formes de logement indigne. Concrètement, ils soutiennent les familles et les communautés fragilisées, via des actions de construction – rénovation – amélioration de logements, de régularisation des terres y compris dans les agglomérations urbaines, d’accès à des moyens financiers (microfinance) ainsi que des actions de lobbying politique. Site Internet HPH – Les contacter.
GRET BRESIL = association sans but lucratif qui travaille en réseau international et regroupe les professionnels du développement solidaire. Au Brésil, ils ont entre autres des projets sur les ressources forestières. Représentation au Brésil : Site Internet – Les contacter.
UNION NACIONAL POR LA MORADIA POPULAR – UNIAO