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ELEMENTS OF CONTEXT
HISTORY OF CITIES – HERITAGE
RIGHT TO HOUSING
The right to access to adequate housing is recognized in the Dutch Constitution. According to the Article 22, paragraph 2, it shall be the concern of the authorities to provide sufficient living accommodation.
Some aspects of the right to housing are also legally regulated. According to the Housing Act of 1901, housing associations are funded and regulated by the State to ensure that they meet national housing needs and increase the supply of affordable housing. Over the years, the associations have increasingly financed the buildings on their own and the government now provides individual subsidies to families that cannot afford the market rate rents.
Housing allowances are also being provided. These are regulated by the 1997 Housing Allowance Act, entitling all qualifying tenants who apply for the allowance to receive it. Moreover, tenants are in the position to challenge unreasonable rents through the Rent Tribunal Act. According to this Act, if a tenant chooses not to accept the rent set by his landlord, the tenant can ask the Rent Tribunal to set the rent (determined by a number of points based on the property’s size and quality). In addition, the Rent Tribunal Act mandates that rent can be increased for inflation once a year by an amount set by the Minister of Public Housing.
The Netherlands ratified the Revised European Social Charter on 03/05/2006, accepting 97 of its 98 paragraphs, including the Article 31 on the right to housing. It accepted the Additional Protocol providing for a system of collective complaints on 03/05/2006, but has not yet made a declaration enabling national NGOs to submit collective complaints.
Source : FEANTSA, 2012 (1)
- Housing and Land Rights Violation Database in each country (Housing and Land Network): http://hlrn.org/welcome_violation.php#.VD-IVCi7_vQ
- Zero Evictions Campaign (International Alliance of Inhabitants): http://www.habitants.org/zero_evictions_campaign
- Data sets on agricultural land grabbing in the world (GRAIN): https://www.grain.org/bulletin_board/entries/4429-new-data-sets-on-land-grabbing
- The Online Public Database on Land Deals – Global Observatory (Land Matrix): http://landmatrix.org/en/
SOME INTERESTING PRACTICES
Social and economic aspects
According to INSEE, in 2007, 56% of Dutch households owned their homes (EU average = 65%).
QUALITY OF HOUSING
INFORMAL HOUSING / SLUM / HOMELESS
In studies conducted in several major cities in the Netherlands late ’90s, the authors point out that at least half of the homeless people interviewed were dependent. The addiction is the largest homeless problem: about 60% would be dependent on alcohol or hard drugs. this population is quite young, little movement in the city and has a personality disorder.
A summary tool quality of life of homeless people are in the Netherlands, it is the Lehmann Brief Quality of Life Instrument.
A strategic approach to homelessness exists in the Netherlands since 2006, a complex strategy based on a census of homeless on the one hand and improved coordination between agencies on the other. The state has identified key issues such as the prevention of homelessness – the quality of the accommodation of homeless – access one at a permanent home – the arrangements for coordination and cooperation between agencies . Between 2005 and 2007, the target was at the same time to improve the situation of 10,150 homeless people and put in place the conditions to prevent nearly 12,000 new homeless.
Source : FEANTSA 2009 – Study 2009
ROLE OF PUBLIC AUTHORITIES
Definition ans situation in 2012
There is not a single definition of social housing in the Netherlands, although The Dutch Constitution states (Article 22) that the promotion of adequate housing is the object of the care of public authorities, and the Dutch Housing Act (1901) gives a legal framework for the way the provision of social housing is organised. In a 2010 decision by the European Commission on the Dutch social housing system, it was defined as the provision of housing at below market price to a target group of disadvantaged people or socially less advantaged groups, as well as to certain categories of key workers. The target group as well as the exact modalities of the service are defined by the public authorities. Social housing providers can also provide other related services to the target group.
How does it work ?
Registered social housing organisations in the Netherlands (woningcorporaties) are private non-profit organisations (associations and foundations) with a legal task to give priority to housing households on lower incomes. They operate on the basis of a registration and are supervised by the national government. Although housing associations work within a legal framework set up by the State, they are independent organisations, setting their own objectives and bearing their own financial responsibilities.
Mechanisms for allocation and criteria vary according to the local/regional situation. In general, up until recently, access to social housing in the Netherlands was never restricted on the basis of income and was virtually open to all citizens. However the recent decision by the European Commission mentioned above challenged this universal approach by targeting social housing provision to a limited group of people (disadvantaged people or socially less advantaged groups, as well as to certain categories of key workers), primarily defined in terms of income.
Source: CECODHAS Report 2012 (2)
Cultural aspects – Religious – Symbolic
Bibliography & Sitography
MAJOR PROBLEMS BY CIVIL SOCIETY
CLAIMS MAJOR CIVIL SOCIETY
CIVIL SOCIETY ACTORS
FEDERATIE OPVANG = Federation of associations working for the housing of socially vulnerable or at risk. It is, for example, provide childcare for the homeless, providing emergency solutions for women victims of domestic violence and teenage mothers, to implement solutions for victims of human trafficking, former prisoners and homeless. Specifically, the Federation organizes meeting platform for its members, represents the interests of its members at the national level provides advocacy and create public debate around these issues. Website OPVANG – Contact them
LANDELIJKE VERENIGING CENTRAAL WONEN – LVCW = woongroepen Federation (grouped habitats – cohousing) in Holland. The people decide to live violontairement collectively, but where each has its personal housing, some spaces and aménagemetns being collective. It is for these people a lifestyle choice for more environmental responsibility, solidarity and social justice. Website – Contact them.
STUURGROEP EXPERIMENTEN VOLKSHUISVESTING = Foundation, which supports social and technical innovation in housing. It is to develop innovative solutions to social issues in the field of housing and promote through practical experiences answers. The experiment should permetter specify whether the innovative solution is adapted to the housing problem. If this is the case, the Foundation also has a role wide diffusion of innovation. Website – Contact them.