HISTORY OF CITIES – HERITAGE
In Monaco, the term “children of the country” refers to people from other nationalities (French, Italians, Americans, etc..) That are installed for long enough in Monaco as there have strong ties. Indeed, the country offers some tax benefits for the wealthiest people, he draws on its territory people from other nationalities. But their wealth can change with time and use the social system (eg housing) established by the State may be necessary.
The total population is down slightly in recent years, but it hides an internal disparity: the French and Italians are fewer while Monaco and the British are increasing. The origin of these departures, according Monaco Hebdo, the price of real estate (see below the current context).
RIGHT TO HOUSING
The right to housing is not listed as such in the Constitution of Monaco. However, it is art. 21 which states that “the home is inviolable. No house can take place only in the cases provided by law and under the conditions prescribed by it.”
Property rights is explained in the Civil Code, Articles and LSHT 438-439-440. Include art. 439 “No one may be forced to sell his property except for a public purpose, and with fair and prior compensation”
SOME INTERESTING PRACTICES
Social and economic aspects
RENTAL VERSUS ACQUISITIVE
According to the report IMSEE (1) , in 2012 :
56.8% of the federal Monaco live in housing (“public housing ”)
16.3% are homeowners
25 % are tenants in the various formulas proposed in Monaco area with free housing assistance 4.9% – free power unassisted housing 9.4% – housing in the protected area 8.7% – housing assistance for retirees 4%.
The study IMSEE (1) analyses the adequacy of the federal park housing available and the demands of the people. Among the findings were the increase in applications from young adults and the desire of many people to access other lands that they already occupy housing. The conclusions concerning the future (needs in 2022) suggest that the stock of state-owned properties that will be available in the next few years will cover the new demands. However, it will improve mobility between units.
“For 30 years, the rental prices increase. Result: the children of the country are becoming increasingly difficult to stay in Monaco. As a result, some decide to leave. Meanwhile, the government policies and seek solutions.”
According to the tenants’ association of Monaco, the departure of the children of the country are due to real estate prices. Rents are too high in the area where prices are “free”, but also serious problems in the area called “sheltered ” where rents are boxed. “A protected area concerning apartment located in buildings constructed before 1 September 1947. In fact, with enough explosive growth recorded by the Principality in the years 1960-1970, the property prices have skyrocketed especially in the early 1980s. “The situation is critical, now believes the president and spokesman of the tenants’ association of Monaco (ALM), Jannine Martinez- Allolio. Because the number of apartments in the protected sector is in freefall. It must be said that there has been a lot of times by the owners who wished to live well. But also a lot of sales. Result, it was kicked out of the country’s children.” According to the Association of Tenants of Monaco, there would be a little more today than a thousand apartments in a protected area, there are about 2000 against twenty years. In short, there is a lack.
Face area “protected” composed of a fairly dilapidated heritage requires heavy renovations or quo should be demolished and a private sector, some see as a good thing creating an area known as “intermediate”. But opinions are sharply divided on the subject. The underlying question is whether the State of Monaco should only support access to housing for native or whether it should also develop solutions to access to housing for the famous “children of the country.”
Source : Article Monaco Hebdo 2010 (2)
QUALITY OF HOUSING
INFORMAL HOUSING / SLUM / HOMELESS
ROLE OF PUBLIC AUTHORITIES
PUBLIC HOUSING : In Monaco, we do not talk about social housing, but FEDERAL HOUSING. It is housing provided by the state according to the needs of the household and the priorities identified, to obtain a text points. To the law.
PROTECTED AREA : the housing sector specificity covering housing built before 1947 (or more precisely the premises for residential purposes). In the rental sector, prices are lower. The government has legislated for many years as to who can access priority as well as in procedure in case of vacancy “local”. These units are designed for “protected persons”, that is to say, the original Monaco or to persons resident in Monaco for a long time (40 years). 1291 Act.
AID FOR CHILDREN OF COUNTRY : They are eligible for some aid for housing, proposed by state aid. Examples include the obtaining of benefits paid by the Caisse Autonome Pensions, access to certain buildings provided they meet certain criteria (resident in Monaco for at least 5 years – be employed for at least six months or have worked at least 5 years), and access to some housing (1291 Act in December 2004) which emphasizes the “children of the country” living in Monaco for a long time.
DIFFERENTIAL ALLOWANCE FOR RENT (ADL): This allowance is financial assistance for rental housing. It is calculated based on reference rents depending on the type of occupied housing is granted to persons residing in the protected area and do not have a property.
Cultural aspects – Religious – Symbolic
Bibliography & Sitography
Rapport de l’Institut Monégasque de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques “Logement des Monégasques – étude des besoins à horizon 2022”, 2012.