ELEMENTS OF CONTEXT
In Finland, the population density is low around 18 inhabitants per km2 in 2010.
Finland remained outside the euro zone, has not escaped the increase in its poverty rate since 2000, from 10 years from 11% to 13.1%! Despite a slight return to growth since 2010 an increase in the number of working poor is found,. This is due to an increase in the number of part-time workers in low-wage jobs.
Child poverty is important, especially when these children come from parents born outside the EU (over 50%). According to the observatory inequality, whether this phenomenon exists in all countries, it is really very important in Finland.
HISTORY OF CITIES – HERITAGE
At the end of the Middle Ages , the Finns introduced the old system of division of land plots , system of Swedish origin . The villages are built in areas with patches of similar length and width . To Modern Times , we find especially large farmsteads .
If the first Finnish settlers occupied only the edges of the country, they gradually move towards the interior , driving before them the Lapps who were mostly hunters.
Following a surplus population , the Finns will establish a type of contract between landless laborers and farm managers . This institution will last until the early twentieth century and will be the reason for the sharp increase in the number of clearing and cropland .
At the end of the 40-45 war , Finland loses a part of its territory to Russia. It must then host many refugees who want to stay Finnish .
Finland remained rural longer than other countries. It was not until 1970 that the whole of the urban population will exceed the total rural population. But this is partly due to the definition of urbanity . In Finland , the habitat is highly dispersed and the criterion of the number of inhabitants per agglomeration should not fully apply. Therefore it is rather about the years 1955-1960 Finland urbanizing.
RIGHT TO HOUSING
The right to access to adequate housing is enshrined in the Finnish Constitution as a part of larger fundamental social rights. According to subsection 1 of the Article 19, “those who cannot obtain the means necessary for a life in dignity have the right to receive indispensable substance and care.” This provision includes a right to accommodation (housing) if life or health is in danger without arranged accommodation.
The Social Welfare Act (710/1982) includes information about “housing services” as “social service” (§§ 17 and 22-23). There are two types of housing service; “service housing” and “supported accommodation”. According to 17 § “Housing services are provided in the case of persons who, for special reasons, need help and support with supporting their living conditions.” Moreover, the Child Welfare Act (683/1983) 13 § demands that the Social Authority provide housing according to need if a child’s welfare is in danger. The Finnish Constitution 6 § does not allow any discrimination due to origin.
Young people who have been taken into custody are the only group of people in Finland who have a subjective right to housing.
Finland ratified the Revised European Social Charter on 21/06/2002, accepting 88 of the 98 paragraphs of the Revised Charter, including the Article 31 on the right to housing. It ratified the Additional Protocol providing for a system of Collective Complaints on 17/07/1998. Finland has made a declaration enabling national NGOs to submit collective complaints.
Source : FEANTSA, 2012
SOME INTERESTING PRACTICES
Social and economic aspects
According to INSEE, in 2007, 67% of Finnish households owned their homes (EU average = 65%).
QUALITY OF HOUSING
INFORMAL HOUSING / SLUM / HOMELESS
According to the FEANTSA report (2007), Finland would experience a decrease in the number of homeless. The question of the link between employment and housing then clearly asked. All services in Finland are residence-based and, with the exception of a few larger cities, there are no special homeless services as such. So it is impossible to give a comprehensive list. The best option is to contact the local social services. They have the best knowledge of the services available in their area and they can also give information about various benefits and how to access housing services, etc.
ROLE OF PUBLIC AUTHORITIES
Definition and situation in 2012
Social housing in Finland consists of dwellings subsidised with loans with interest subsidies from the Housing Finance and Development Centre of Finland (ARA), rented at cost-based rents, to tenants selected on the basis of social and financial needs. The right to housing is established by the Constitution, and the purpose of social housing is to facilitate the access to secure and high-quality housing for all. Local authorities have the responsibility to facilitate access to housing at the local level and must also provide housing for certain vulnerable groups. The stock of social housing in the country corresponds to about 16% of the total housing stock.
How does it work ?
Currently, about 60% of all ARA-subsidised rental dwellings are owned by municipalities and managed through municipal companies or, to a lesser extent, directly by the local authority. Limited profit housing companies play a complementary role. Housing benefits are also available helping beneficiaries to pay for rent, maintenance, heating and water supply.
Priority is given on the basis of social needs and urgency. Income is an important factor but there are no fixed income ceilings.
Source : CECODHAS Report 2012
Cultural aspects – Religious – Symbolic
Bibliography & Sitography
Michel Cabouret, La Finlande, éd. Karthala, 2005.
MAJOR PROBLEMS BY CIVIL SOCIETY
CLAIMS MAJOR CIVIL SOCIETY
CIVIL SOCIETY ACTORS
ASUKASLIITTO RY = association tenants and landlords. The association offers advice, publishes a newspaper, organizes seminars, provides training. Among the themes of work, there are healthy and sustainable housing – affordable housing – housing developments in Europe and its repercussions on the situation in Finland. Information via the website FEANTSA – Website ASUKASLIITTO – the contact
NUORISOASUNTOLIITTO = Finnish Association for nonprofit housing for young people. This association works at the national federation of local associations and housing assistance for young people. These associations provide affordable housing for young people; prevent youth homelessness across the country offer services to assist in the transition to adulthood; defend the interests of young people in housing; produce and share information about this topic. Information via the website FEANTSA – Website NUORISOASUNTOLIITTO – the contact
Y-SÄÄTIÖ = Foundation, which provides social housing for the homeless, refugees and vulnerable to homelessness. She built (with funding from the state) and manages “social” housing across the country. She is attentive to the problems of urban growth. Information via the website FEANTSA – Website Y-SÄÄTIÖ – the contact
HELSINKIMISSIO = charity which aims to ‘seek, find and help citizens solitary’. From the point of view that the solution is not (only) increased financial resources, social aspects or drugs for these people, they invest daily with volunteers in the social bond. They are experts in ‘social capital’ and feel that their work has the dimension of a civil action. Website – Contact.