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ELEMENTS OF CONTEXT
THE DANGER OF MINES: Mozambique was one of the most heavily mined countries in the world, due to the civil war that took place there from 1977 to 1992. Clearance is in progress for several years. Sites are subject to signage.
Mozambique is a country of great potential and many contrasts. Located in southern Africa, it has borders with six other countries and more than 2,500 km of Indian Ocean coastline. Its population is strikingly young, with 10 million children accounting for half of the total population of 20 million. More than 1.6 million people are infected with HIV/Aids. In Mozambique, 500 people become infected with HIV/AIDS every day, especially women and children. As a generation of parents die in Mozambique, they leave behind a social vacuum and over 1.5 million orphans, 500,000 due to HIV/AIDS. Thousands of children were being orphaned and were living in unhealthy and unsafe housing.
Source : Habitat for Humanity
Since the end of the civil war in 1992 Mozambique’s economy has grown. However, it remains among the world’s poorest 20 countries and ranks 175 out of 179 on the 2008 Human Development index. The income per capita is US$370 and more than 58 percent of children live below the poverty line. Seventy percent of people live in rural areas and subsist by farming small plots of land. Others migrate to South Africa to find work, leaving families behind as they search for a better future.
Source : Habitat for Humanity
HISTORY OF CITIES – HERITAGE
RIGHT TO HOUSING
A report carried out by the FIAN International Secretary reported the issue of land grabbing in Mozambique. Go to the report (2010). The authors analyze the causes and impacts of land grabbing through a case study, that of production biofuels in the district of Massingir (Gaza Province).
This is a British company that bought land to achieve a Megaproject sugar. In 2006, the company successfully deposited with the Government of Mozambique an application for land allocation, and this for a period of 50 years. Country officials were excited that this project would provide local community development. Mozambique’s President then announced that biofuel project would not displace farmers from their land, the project reports of almost uninhabited land. In fact, a significant number of families occupied this territory! The Land Law of the country requires the consultation of the people in such cases. Thus, it seems that only the elite community and older were consulted, with the result that they seemed pretty supportive, despite the opposition of the rest of the population. The authors of this study also felt that the questions were not entirely relevant because they involved the relocation of other lands. This raises many questions about the process of consultation with the people.
To this we can add that the situation was to change the lives of farmers. Cut off from their grazing areas and the usual routes, they had become semi-nomadic. Their mode of living was questioned!
At the right land, the authors note a significant risk: if during the first 50 years the British company would only rent the land, she could then apply effective control of land (indirect access to land) . In the end, the company has not continued to operate beyond 2009, which was a great relief for the people!
Recently (2012), the State of Mozambique is committed to develop and approve by June 2013 “regulations and procedures to empower communities to engage in partnerships based on a lease or sub-lease (cessao of Exploração), which raises many controversies.
SOME INTERESTING PRACTICES
Social and economic aspects
QUALITY OF HOUSING
INFORMAL HOUSING / SLUM / HOMELESS
ROLE OF PUBLIC AUTHORITIES
Cultural aspects – Religious – Symbolic
Bibliography & Sitography
MAJOR PROBLEMS BY CIVIL SOCIETY
CLAIMS MAJOR CIVIL SOCIETY
CIVIL SOCIETY ACTORS
HABITAT FOR HUMANITY MOZAMBIQUE: Habitat works with the local community to build simple, decent homes. Habitat Mozambique also provides a toilet, mosquito nets and certeza (a water purifying liquid which makes water safe to drink). Each house is also protected by a legally-enforceable will ensuring that property grabbing does not take place. The children have the legal right to remain in the home even if their caregiver dies. In 2004, the decision was made to work mainly with Orphans and Vulnerable children. Website – Contact them