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History of Cities – Heritage
The growth of cities is a recent phenomenon in Argentina: the middle of the twentieth century, the population of Buenos Aires accounted for only 1% of the total population (against 7% today to the city or 30% if Taking into account the ‘big’ Buenos Aires). Buenos Aires therefore knows a significant urban sprawl.
In the ’90s, to a total deregulation of the Argentine economy and at the peak of liberal policies, Argentine cities will experience the so-called’ third generation urban ‘, involving management and vocabulary totally entrepreneurial. We will manage the Argentine cities ‘strategically’ with ‘flexibility’, according to models ‘piecemeal’ or management ‘per project’. It came to revitalize cities as if they were normal markets, including in relation to urban land. Source: The right to the city, recent thinking in the cities of Argentina Publication produced in 2011 by HIC The globalization process that was begun during the 90s had an impact on Argentine cities, particularly in terms of privatization public land and property speculation. Source = Sheet CITEGO A population relocation program slums (Programming of Relocalización Asentamientos Precario poblacional) is set up. Some municipalities then make a right tool to housing through regularization process, others felt that this allowed them instead of moving populations to peripheral areas lacking infrastructure and services. (Publication HIC ” Cities for all “)
Since 2001, the number of people living in precarious urban neighborhoods (‘Villas miseras’) is exploding. From 2001 to 2009, the population of these popular neighborhoods in Buenos Aires slum Double or 235,000 people. The houses in these neighborhoods have mostly a workshop that allows people to sell and produce all within the habitat. But other cities like Córdoba familiar with this same type of phenomenon. Argentines living in that time a strong process of casualization that is revealed through their urban settlement patterns: Source: HIC network card or Risal info. Countless forced evictions, sometimes with violence, which are the daily lot of these people. Hence the desire of many social movements to see viable ‘urbanized’ these neighborhoods so that people can finally live there permanently.
The urban rate in Argentina is very high (more than 70%) and has begun very early, from 1920-1930.
Some views from Buenos Aires (included Lavalle and Mayo places). Source : association of neighboroughs of Palermoviejo.
HABITAT : LEGAL ASPECTS
Right to Housing
The multisectoral movement ARGENTINA HABITAT has specialized in the analysis and legislative proposals urbain.Video for presentation. Since the mid-twentieth century, the right to decent housing is enshrined in the constitution. But here too the right of property has priority over the right to housing, which means it does not take account of the social dimension of housing, as stipulated in the Pact of San José, Costa Rica which adheres Argentina since institutional reform of 1994.
Lack of legal framework securing access to land and housing is – according Habitar Argentina – the main reason why people occupy irregularly urban spaces. For years, urban planning is carried out according to the market and not on a genuine public urban planning that would defend the public interest. This creates social and spacial inequalities, reinforced by poor policy on urban mobility.
A new project of Public Policy (2011) wants to make the right to housing inalienable Argentina. This project was developed in a context of global crisis, with the aim not only to provide housing to all, but to allow thereby a certain country’s economic recovery. This plan would include: a federal plan to improve habitat – the holding of a national registry of residence – a new progressive property tax. (Source and details: Article IAH Hernán Rodriguez)
Since 2013, in the Province of Buenos Aires, there are currently 14,432 the Law for the Protection of Housing Unique occupied permanently declaring the elusive and enforceable housing. The Social Movement MO.DE.VI.FA – (BLOG) is an important player for the defense of the new law also applied to Mendoza (25391 Act).
From International Alliance of Inhabitants : fight pictures – housing or land right.
Since 1999, Law No. 148/99 for emergency housing (Ley de Emergencia Habitacional) is also called The Great Law (Ley Mayor) or Mother Law (Ley Madre). This legal system established in Buenos Aires trying to secure the rental of land to the people, avoid evictions and provide the adequate infrastructure areas. It was a question of creating a participatory Coordination Commission, integrating organizations in these precarious and marginalized neighborhoods. The aim is to draw the contours of an integrated program permanent transformation of these neighborhoods over 5 years. This Act was completed in 2001 by decree 206/01 explicit operational rules and the actors involved.
Since 2009 he is the Participatory Urbanization Act to enable people in some poor districts to obtain guarantees for the preservation of their habitat. Read about it the case of Buenos Aires resistance (Ward “Carlos Mujica”) in a study entitled “How people face evictions” by the DPU of Building and Social Housing Foundation (Como los Pobladores Enfrenten los desalojos) or (How people face eviction). It seems that the Argentine government has for the 60’s conflicting and changing policies, ranging from support and recognition of these illegal neighborhoods outright expulsion. The arrival of the military junta (1976-1983) will change everything: the violence that will be applied vis-à-vis these neighborhoods ‘illegal’.
Despite commitments made by the Government of Argentina, evictions of people living in the poorest neighborhoods continue … Article IAH in 2011
Pictures of evictions or resistance against evictions – Source : International Alliance of Inhabitants
Today, the mobilizations are mainly against the mining and monocultures. Urban speculation is often one aspect of these policies “extractive” according to the Observatory of Mining Conflicts. Strong mobilization takes place against soybean production. Recall the “Mothers of Ituzaingó” who won their trial following an increase in disease and death in these growing areas (water that has been contaminated by chemicals spilled on soybean fields).
Some Interesting Practices
- THE MEETINGS OF NEIGHBOURS: Residents of neighborhoods come together to better manage their urban areas, in particular to recover abandoned spaces to make – for example – public places. Source: sheet CITEGO
- COOPERATIVES SELF MANAGED BY PEOPLE : These movements also located right in the urban centers are developing. Article Right to the City and cooperative management, Carla Maria Rodriguez, published by Centro-h. This article describes how the new movements of cooperatives, especially in the center of Buenos Aires, on both participatory and civic skills they develop are all ways for people to reassert their right to the city. Testimony on the housing cooperatives situations in Buenos Aires explain the interest of the cooperative movement, municipal laws that can support these cooperatives at times (eg, Act 341 in Buenos Aires that granted mortgage loans at zero interest, but is suppressed today), but also the current difficulties of access to finance. Video testimony: Video at the World Assembly of Inhabitants in Dakar in 2011.
- PARTICIPATORY BUDGETING : Rosario, the third largest Argentinean city (around 1 million inhabitants in 2012), is an active port on the Parana River. Its PB, which started in 2002, is a reference both at national and international levels. Rosario has been constantly on the lookout for innovations to add to the process, the most recent being voting methods designed to be more attractive and ‘fun’ for the people (Bolivoto). Older features are the city’s important sensitivity to gender issues and the strong and innovative links to renowned strategic planning and participatory democracy processes. Rosario participated in the early 2000s research. To know more about the Participatory Budgeting concept – to know more about the report made by Prof Y. Cabannes (IIED 2014) : http://pubs.iied.org/pdfs/10713IIED.pdf
HABITAT : SOCIAL & ECONOMIC ASPECTS
Quality of Housing
Informal Housing / Slum / Homeless
An Interesting Study Conducted within the Maimonides University in 2008 by Ramón Oscar Oliveira, That shows there – to Buenos Aires – A direct relationship between the existence of the population in Emerging areas, urban cores and transition inequalities in the distribution of income. Thesis of R. Oliveira.
HABITAT : ROLE OF PUBLIC AUTHORITIES
Following the housing difficulties, the central government policy and local government was to donate the land of large companies and corporations for housing.
Rental Housing park Degraded
There is a social housing stock in Argentina, quite degraded. The following video shows the steps of REHABITAR project that helped rehabilitate social housing (the cost of the rehabilitation of 25% of the cost of new construction). Source: Website Video Design with the other.
The Movement Movimiento por Vivienda Popular calls for the urgent construction cost housing – affordable housing. video
The IAI network conducted a meeting in 2013 to reflect on the social housing and alternative housing in the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean: Download publication IAH website
HABITAT : ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS
Bibliography & Sitography
Argentina is experiencing a serious lack of housing: in 2011, he would miss two million homes. This deficit is increasing every year, with about 120,000 additional housing units (source: IAI network)
- the inhabitants of “Cities” are particularly stigmatized and marginalized: they can not easily gain access to work, public health agencies, schools, …
- The cities ‘favellisent’ (neologism to express the impoverishment of neighborhoods) .
According ARGENTINA RED HABITAT network,
- there 2.5 million vacant units in Argentina, including 100,000 in Buenos Aires
- The main problem is not a lack of housing, but an inability to access housing
According to the Movement for a Popular Housing (Movimiento por Vivienda Popular)
- 500,000 people are homeless
- There is no housing policy
- A major problem is access to credit (mortgage)
According Habitar Argentina,
- The lack of urban planning is a major element in precarious housing and growth processes of social and spacial inequalities.
- The lack of legislation that would allow people legally occupy the ground and housing is a major factor in the development of informal settlements.
Major Claims and Demands
The network FEDEVI claims :
- The establishment of a round table between all departments in connection with the issue of ‘villas’ and representatives of the ‘villas’. A coordinating body would facilitate constructive dialogue.
- This consultative body would be the place to discuss the acquisition of certain lands where are the ‘Villas’ current owners.
RED HABITAT ARGENTINA Network claims:
- The revaluation of vacant buildings
- A Marco Act nationally
- Thinking about public policy with the persons concerned and not for them
- Financial support to organizations and associations working for the right to housing. The network calls for 10% of the national budget goes to NGOs and social movements to break with assistantship policies, clientelism and corruption: Video testimony.
- A right to adequate housing, even for people with disabilities – video testimonial
The National Indigenous Movement Countryman (MNCI) claims:
- To stop the persecution and violence against indigenous communities rustic
- To meet the demands made of the right to land
The Movement for a Popular Housing (Movimiento Vivienda Popular) claims Article IAH and BLOG of the movement :
- Plans for Popular Housing: that the Governments of the country and the city building, as they promised during the expulsion of Indoamericano in December 2010.
- Judgments and punishments for the Companions of the Assassins Indoamericano.
- Stop legal action against those who fight for their rights to housing.
- Immediate halt to evictions and relocation assistance for evicted.
- Urbanization ‘Villas’ (shantytowns – villas miserias) for all its inhabitants, with control by the neighbors and by social and political organizations, WITHOUT political patronage.
- Profit rent, which does not exceed 20% of the family income, with state guarantee.
- Increased Budget for the Popular Housing and total implementation of the program, with supervision by the neighbors and by social organizations.
- A final housing solution: Opening loan programs concessional as the Act 341 and actual execution of all its stages: buying land, work begins, deeds.
- That grants individual loans without political patronage.
- For Emergency Law Housing with a program and a real budget.
- Real transitional housing program until permanent accommodation.
- No to the sale of land of the IVC or land and state property. We intended to social housing programs all buildings of the IVC.
- Implementation of the Bank buildings at the disposal of organizations without land.
- Tax on unoccupied.
- A right to the city.
- A change in access to land and housing laws so that everyone can live with dignity as enshrined in the Constitution.
The multisectoral movement Habitar Argentina offers:
- That the benefit of urban and territorial development of the Argentine cities could go to the communities through these profits recovery process by the Commons.
- That the Argentine Government (local level – national) acquires urban and regional planning instruments to facilitate access to land and housing.
- 4 themes to support proposals made to the Government: A recognition of the social production of habitat – Measures deal with evictions and the high cost of rent – The territorial regularization measures – a real territorial planning.
Some Social Movements
- FEDEVI – FEDEración de VIllas = this association is an emancipatory force to cities and marginalized neighborhoods of Buenos Aires, leading various control actions of solidarity, solidarity credit. BLOG FEDEVI. Contact: Cristina Reynals, member of the AMH Carlos Armando Cesare – video presentation FEDEVI
- COOPERATIVE El CEIBO = association for waste recovery in neighborhoods – contact – see: French video – video in Spanish
- FEDERACIÓN DE COOPERATIVAS TODOS JUNTOS (not found coordinates)
- RED HABITAT ARGENTINA = this association brings together the various forces of the country on the right to housing: inhabitants, association, officials politiques.- Tel: 15 5162 5774 – 15 6848 4088 – contact them on Facebook – Presentation of a diagnosis Red Habitat website IAH
- UNPEPROCH = peasant organization of small producers who work for a better quality of life for families who can survive in rural areas. Contact: Tel 03722-15779226 Oscar Gamarra and Jose. Chuza Ledesma, member of the AMH – Environmentalist Movement which it belongs: Website RENACE – More: Sheet CITEGO
- Mouvement GIROS (MNCI – Via Campesina Argentina) = basic movement in constant articulation between organizations in different provinces. They realize regional meetings (Region NEA, NOA and Central) for that geographical distances do not impede trade. Peasant organization from current champions the peri-urban territories attempts to land grabbing by megaprojects or the private sector. Contact: Alejandro Gelfuso, member of the AMH Tel: 0341-153579370 – Website. They are among other proposals for ‘the city of the future’: network card AITEC
- ONG CANOA Habitat Popular = NGO working in a comprehensive and interdisciplinary perspective of popular housing (institutions – social organizations) to develop proposals in popular habitat. Details: 4 de Enero 2562 – PO Box 3000 – Santa Fe – TE: (54) – (342) 4524926/4523022 – contact – Website: Website CANOA
- MOVIMIENTO POR VIVIENDA POPULAR = movement of shares for the recognition of popular housing – BLOG movement – contact: Mail of motion – video showing them in action with the details of their claims : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9rxpz1IXbkQ
HABITAR ARGENTINA = multisectoral movement composed of NGOs, academic institutions, social movements, professionals, government officials and lawyers who work for the right to land and housing in particular through concrete proposals at the legislative level – – BLOG – contact – their bills on Facebook
- ONG MOVIMIENTO EN DEFENSA DE LA VIVIENDA FAMILIAR MO.DE.VI.FA = movement fighting against the problems of mortgage debt ‘families who lost their only shelter following the problems of the economic and financial crisis since 2001 – their BLOG – the contact
- SECRETARIA LATINOAMERICANA DE VIVIENDA POPULAR – SELVIP = movement in Latin America which supports popular housing, cooperative housing and all attempts to promote solutions that emanate from field workers themselves and to fight against all forms of expulsion . contact them BLOG
- MOVIMIENTO DE OCUPANTES E INQUILINOS – MOI = association which supports decent, popular housing and the right to the city, including via the model of self-managed housing cooperatives. Their three courses of action are self-management, mutual and collective solidarity property helps. Contact us- to their Website
- ASOCIACIÓN CIVIL HÁBITAT Y VIDA – ACHyV = social movement supporting access for all to land, housing and habitat. It is a multidisciplinary group of citizens who want to promote the production of sustainable habitats, including through monitoring of projects, training and advice, networking, the collection and redistribution of resources. Blog ACHyV – contact the
- FEDERACION NACIONAL DE TRABAJADORES POR LA TIERRA – FTV
- MOVIMIENTO NACIONAL CAMPESINO INDIGENA (MNCI) = http://mnci.org.ar/