TOUR OF THE HABITAT WORLD SEEN BY CIVIL SOCIETY

Greece

#Keywords : Athens Charter Dernière mise à jour le 25 June 2019

URBANISATION

History of the towns – Heritage

Urban Habitat

Rural Habitat

LEGAL ASPECTS

Right to housing

The Right to housing is enshrined in the Constitution (Art. 21§4) which states that “the acquisition of a home by the homeless or those inadequately sheltered shall constitute an object of special State care”. However, Housing solutions are generally undermined.

This is manifested by the recent following developments: the abolition of social housing organizations; the withdrawal of housing benefits (rent allowances); the constraints in the area of affordability (mainly through the sharp increases in housing taxes, loans’ repayment, and the cost of utilities services); as well as the new legal provisions on evictions (article 15 of the L 4055/12 in Official Gazette Α/12-3-2012, which provides for an express legal procedure without a trial).

In relation to housing solutions for people leaving institutions, according to the Article 82, paragraph 1 of the Correctional Code, the opening of hostels is provided in order to offer temporary accommodation to those prisoners who are homeless after their release.

In terms of the Council of Europe, Greece has signed the Revised European Social Charter on 03/05/1996 but has not yet ratified it. It accepted the Additional Protocol providing for a system of collective complaints on 18/06/1998, but has not yet made a declaration enabling national NGOs to submit collective complaints.

Source: FEANTSA – Housing Rights Watch

Forced evictions

The financialization of housing

Until the 1990s, home ownership was mainly based on own financing (informal systems and personal economies). Then, successive governments and banks campaigned to encourage households to use credit. At the same time, real estate market prices have risen, it becomes necessary to borrow money to buy.

This debt policy is now showing its catastrophic impact on housing.

The rate of homeowners with outstanding credit is becoming more and more important, which weakens ownership. In addition to credits, there are private and public debts (unpaid water, electricity, social security). It is estimated that 50% of Greek people are now in debt, a debt that threatens property since real estate can be seized and auctioned off to repay it.

If we compare the Greek situation with that of Spain, the impact of mortgages and real estate loans is of course not the same magnitude. However, the debt mechanisms and the consequences for indebted households are comparable.

In 2015, an allocation was created in the humanitarian crisis programme (in the form of food vouchers, electricity, water).

Source: European Coalition Action – Observation report by Lucie Marie, DAL France volunteer

New rules (2015)

These families were So far protected as long as the value of their property was less than 250,000 Euros. Creditors wanted to lower this threshold and link protection to strict criteria in order to carry out evictions to access “at best” losses of the banks on their mortgages. The goal was to promote a more accurate recapitalization of the banking system and evacuate future risks. In the end, the Government of Alexis Tsipras had to accept the two applications of the creditors. The “bad payers” will fall into three categories. Those that were first concerned include with income of 8.180 Euros per year for a single person and 13.917 Euros for a couple, with a premium of 3.391 Euros per child. The Greeks in this category will benefit from the protection against expulsion as long as their well is less than 170,000 Euros (the assessment should be independent). For those who have an income of up to 23.659 Euros per year for a couple and having a good rated up to 230,000 Euros, the debt will be renegotiated with the Bank, and payments will be adjusted. For others, the normal procedure will be applied.

Source: The content of the agreement with creditors – the tribune – Romaric Godin – 17/11/2015

Land law

Land grab

Interesting practices

ASPECTS SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC

The housing market

According to INSEE, in 2007, 73 percent of Greek households owned their homes (average European = 65%).

According to the report of CECODHAS, 2012, the share of the costs of housing compared to the available income is 30.2%, which is one of the highest in Europe.

Quality of housing

Informal Habitat / slum / homeless

  • Homeless: In Greece, there has been no national strategy to combat homelessness. NGOs like Klimaka undertook the most extensive investigation of the matter until the recent investigation (not yet published) on those who sleep on the street in Athens. Reports of the FEANTSA therefore do not know how many homeless.
  • Following the crisis : given the current economic recession, unemployment and permanent austerity measures affecting the Greece, the issue of housing has become one of the most burning issues to be resolved. New phenomena of homelessness and exclusion from decent housing are found throughout the country.

ROLE OF PUBLIC AUTHORITIES

Social housing

Definition and situation in 2012

Greece doesn’t have a rental social housing sector unlike other EU countries,. The sector of social housing in the country consists of housing ownership provided cheaply to the workers and employees of the Workers Housing Organization (OEK). The OEK also provides various forms of housing such as subsidies in subdivisions, loans for the purchase, construction, repair, expansion and completion, aid to the rent, special programs and pilot programs for the accommodation of vulnerable social groups. The OEK conducts each year on average about 150.068 units, representing approximately 95% of total annual public sector construction activity.

How does it work?

Currently, the only organization providing social housing in subdivisions in Greece is the OEK, a tripartite body operating under the auspices of the Ministry of labour and social security, and with its own financial resources.

The beneficiaries of the OEK are workers and employees (including immigrants’ pure financial reasons) of the private or public sector, whose salary is provided within a main social security organization and who contribute to the OEK, and retreats of all these categories.

Source: Report CECODHAS, 2012 (3)

ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS

Bibliography

  1. Movement social Solidarity4all: http://www.solidarity4all.gr/
  2. Network FEANTSA
  3. CECODHAS 2012 report: Report EN PDF

SOCIAL MOVEMENTS

Video of theAssociation La Chaîne : ‘ Maria Kassola in Greek, new version musical. ”

Video of theAssociation La Chaîne : “COALITION European law housing and to the city to ATHENS 21 and June 22, 2015” (part 1)

Video of the Association chain : “COALITION European law housing and to the city to ATHENS 21 and June 22, 2015” (part 2)

FLV = http://www.darksite.ch/alachaine/spip/IMG/flv/COALITIONATHENS4presntt.flv

Video of the Association chain : “COALITION European law housing and to the city to ATHENS 21 and June 22, 2015” (part 4)

Video of the Association chain : “COALITION European law housing and to the city to ATHENS 21 and June 22, 2015 ‘ (6th part)

Major problems

Recommendations and proposals

List of social movements:

  • KλIμαKα (KLIMAKA) = an association that works for those lacking a roof. It offers a telephone number that allows citizens to inform the association on the existence of homeless people (performing a mapping of the phenomenon). It offers immediate information on the existing of services (housing – supply – care – legal issues – work). Its purpose is also an immediate response to people at risk in order to prevent them from becoming homeless. Information via the FEANTSA site Site Internet KλIμαKα contact them
  • ΟικοΚοινωνία (OIKOKOINONIA) = a non-profit association working for housing, social integration and respect for the rights of the Roman people. Among the actions, there is data collection on the issues faced by these groups of people and events in order to change public policy in this area. Website ΟικοΚοινωνία contact them
  • Αλληλεγγύηςγια όλους (SOLIDARITY4ALL) = This is an association which promotes solidarity as a tool of social resistance in times of crisis. medical practices and social pharmacies – kitchens to distribute food – social grocery stores and self-managed collective land – saving opportunities of barter – of social private lessons – of spaces for recreation and alternative culture – groups of legal support – assistance to the immigrants are  amongst the actions introduced by this movement, PDF of their campaign -Video testimony: Video Web Site